MEDICATION REVIEW FOR NURSES

MEDICATION
FRACTIONS
any whole number is over 1
fraction bottom divided by top
numerator top
denominator bottom
proper fraction reduce fraction
find # that divides into top and bottom
divide top and bottom by that number
improper fraction top divided by bottom

3 tsp =1 tbsp
1 tablespoon = 1/2 fld oz
16 tbsp = 1 cup
1 cup = 8 fld oz
2 cup = 1 pint
2 pint = 1 quart
60 drops = 1 tsp
3 tsp = 1 tbsp
12 tbsp = 1 teacup

weight = grain
volume = minum
60 grains = 1 dram
8 drams = 1 oz
60 minums = 1 fl dram
8 fl drams = 1 fl oz
16 fl oz =1 pt
1 drop = 1 minum
1 tsp = 1 dram
1 tbsp = 1/2 oz
2 tbsp = 1 oz
1 teacup = 6 oz
1 cup = 8oz
2 cups = 1 pint
2 pts = 1 qt
4 qts = 1 gallon
1 centimeter= 0,01 meter=0,4 inch
1000 ml = 1 liter
1000 cubic cent {cc}{ml}= 1 liter
1 milleliter= 1 cc
1000,000 microgram=1 gram
1 microgram = 0.001 millegram
1 millegram = 0.001 gram
1 gram = 0.001 kilogram
1 milleliter = 0.001 liter
1000 microgram = 1 millegram
1000 millegram = 1 gram
1000 gr= 1 kilogram = 2.2 lbs
divide wt by 2.2= kg

microgram = ug
milligram = mg
gram = g
grain = gr
kilogram = kg
millilitre = ml
liter = l

1000 ml = 32 oz= 1 qt
500 ml= 16 oz= 1 pt
15 ml = 1/2 oz = 2 tbsp
5 ml =1 dr = 1 tsp

0.5g=?mg
move decimal 3x to left
900mg = ?
move decimal 3x to lt

hematocrit
male 13~18g female 16g
hemaglobin
male 12~16 female 12~16

roman numerals
50 = l 100 = c 500 = d 1000 = m

dose desired over dose on hand
times dose form = amt to administer
doseage must be same unit of measurement

5 RIGHTS
# right med
# right client
# right dose
# right route
# right time

3 CHECKS
# when getting drug
# when pouring drug
# when replacing drug

DRUGS
schedule F Rx drugs
schedule G controlled abuse potential
schedule H narcotics

health disciplines act LPN
1995 or with med course
no intradermal im iv injection
yes natcotin po subq transdermal
yes prn meds
no adjust ordered dose
orders must be signe by DR
no immun allergy testing
insulin must be doublechecked
yes heparin epipen

ac before meals
gs quantity sufficient
qod every other day
pc after meals
ou both eyes
os left eye
ad right eye

DOCUMENT MEDS
date–time of admin–name of med–dosage–route–assessmenr–client teaching

med to child
weight in kg X dose per kg= safe dose

DRUG ACTIONS
palliative = relieves Sx not disease
curative= cures disease
supportive=ie b/p meds
substitutive= replaces body flds
chemotherapeutic= kills C A Cells
restorative=returns body to health
substitutive=replaces body fluids
restorative-returns body to health

local effect of med=at site
systemic=thruout body

1]orally=p.o. 2]parenterally=IV injection 3]percutaneously=ung. topical
*liver is responsible for metabolism..liver disease decreases bodys ability to metabolize medication
*kidney and ureters eliminate meds
*no elimination =increased toxicity and increase doseage in body=OD
*halflife of drugs=amt of time required for 50% of the drug to eliminated from the body
*tolerance means a person has a poor response to a med..increased dosages are required toto produse the desired effect
REACTIONS TO MEDS
1]adverse side effects 2]allergic anaphylactic reactions 3]cumulative reactions 4]desired effect 5]dependency 6]idiosyncratic effect 7]therapeutic 8]tolerance
9]toxic effect
MED ACTION INFLUENCED BY
1]weight 2]culture 3]disease 4]envirnment 5]genetic differences 6]psycological differences 7]sex/gender 8]time of administration
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO MEDS TO CHILDREN
ABSORPTION-gastric influences–intestinal influences–topical ung–Parenteral meds
METABOLISM=slower in liver
EXCRETION-risk of toxicity
MED INTERACTIONS
*additive effect=2 drugs with similar effect =doubled effect
*synergistic effect=combined effect of 2 drugs is greater than the sum of each drug taken alone
*antagonistic effect=one drug interferes with the action of another
*displacement=displacement of a drug by a second drug increases activity of the first drug
*interfernce=one drug inhibits the metabolism or excretion of a second drug causing increased activity of second drug

MEDICATION TWO
*brand name
*generic name
*monogram
*drug classification=group of drugs with similar characteristics
CPS 1]pink =therapeutic guide 2]green=drug listing of brand names 3]photo pages 4]yellow=manufactures pages 5]lilac=clinical info 6]blue pages=pt info 7]white=monographs of pharmaceuticals
PRIOR TO ADMIN OF DRUG RESEARCH
1]action of med 2]safe doseage 3]route of med 4]side effects/adverse effects 5]spectial precaution/exams prior 6]nursing implications

_cardiac glycoside/cardiotonic medication
slows heart rate increase force of the heart muscle
_vasodilator meds manage chest pain
_diuretics meds promote the excretion of water and electrolytes decrease water retention
_antihistamine block effect of histamine
_antidiarrheal 1] dumulcents soothe irritable bowels…absorbants bind water gas etc
_laxative/cathartic medication 1] saline 2]stimulant 3]lubricant emollient 4]bulk forming
5]fecal softeners
_thyroid hormone for hypothyroidism
_antithyroid treat hyperthyroidism
_Glucorticord suppression of inflammitory and allergic response of body
__Antigout meds are used to reduce the production of uric acid
_corticosteroids antiinflamitory pain for muscular skeletal pain
_gold salts in rheumatoid arthritis
_Antituberlar treats TB
_Antiviral treats viral infections
_Antineoplastic treat CA always glove up
MEDICATION
**profile=record of all meds recieved
**med card DRs order for a medication is transcribed to a medication card
**medication administration record=computer record
RE: ADMINISTRATION OF MEDS
*follow agency policies
*know clients baseline data
*clients history
*clients need for PRN meds
*research generic /trade names of med
*read clients med profile
*check the physician order
DONT GIVE MED
*the drug is outdated
*the drugs color and form has changed
*drug container is cracked or broken
*the label is unreadable
MEDICATION TWO
*brand name
*generic name
*monogram
*drug classification=group of drugs with similar characteristics
CPS 1]pink =therapeutic guide 2]green=drug listing of brand names 3]photo pages 4]yellow=manufactures pages 5]lilac=clinical info 6]blue pages=pt info 7]white=monographs of pharmaceuticals
PRIOR TO ADMIN OF DRUG RESEARCH
1]action of med 2]safe doseage 3]route of med 4]side effects/adverse effects 5]spectial precaution/exams prior 6]nursing implications

_cardiac glycoside/cardiotonic medication
slows heart rate increase force of the heart muscle
_vasodilator meds manage chest pain
_diuretics meds promote the excretion of water and electrolytes decrease water retention
_antihistamine block effect of histamine
_antidiarrheal 1] dumulcents soothe irritable bowels…absorbants bind water gas etc
_laxative/cathartic medication 1] saline 2]stimulant 3]lubricant emollient 4]bulk forming
5]fecal softeners
_thyroid hormone for hypothyroidism
_antithyroid treat hyperthyroidism
_Glucorticord suppression of inflammitory and allergic response of body
__Antigout meds are used to reduce the production of uric acid
_corticosteroids antiinflamitory pain for muscular skeletal pain
_gold salts in rheumatoid arthritis
_Antituberlar treats TB
_Antiviral treats viral infections
_Antineoplastic treat CA always glove up
MEDICATION
**profile=record of all meds recieved
**med card DRs order for a medication is transcribed to a medication card
**medication administration record=computer record
RE: ADMINISTRATION OF MEDS
*follow agency policies
*know clients baseline data
*clients history
*clients need for PRN meds
*research generic /trade names of med
*read clients med profile
*check the physician order
DONT GIVE MED
*the drug is outdated
*the drugs color and form has changed
*drug container is cracked or broken
*the label is unreadable

INTRAVENOUS NOTES
water=lubricates body-transport molecules out of cells-metabolism-temperature-acid base balance
H2O-purposes=intracellular {in cell}fluid 2/3 of body water content
=extracellular (fluid outsise cell) further broken into 1)=interstitial (fld in the tissue 2)intravascular plasma =1/3 of body watr content
-age=babys have more water
-gender=females have less fluid
,body fat=obese=less fluid
VULNERABLE to fld imbalances
1) elderly 2)very young 3)those with poor nutrition 3)illness stressors
HOMEOSTASIS=internal healthy balance
CELL MEMBRANES=semipermiability
PASSIVE TRANSPORT=diffusion solutes move randomly
OSMOSIS=movement of water across membranes to equalize thr volume
OSMOTIC PRESSURE 1)isotonic solution=solutes entering ECF=to the concentrates of solutes in the ICF
2) hypertonic solution =when solutions entering the EFC contains a greater concentratration of solutes than the ICF a shift from within the cells to the EFCwill occur cells shrink
3)hypotonic =when a solution entering the